Gandhinagar, 16 August 2020
Despite good rains in 2020, the average cultivation of monsoon tobacco in Gujarat is barely 1 percent of the cultivation against 55231 hectares. Last year at this time the area under cultivation was 1924 hectares, but now it is 626 hectares. Which shows below 33 percent. There are 400 hectares in Kheda and 200 hectares in Vadodara. Plantation was done in Mehsana where there is no planting. Thus, farmers in Gujarat suddenly turned away from tobacco. What is the reason? Bidi Tobacco Research Center of Anand Agricultural University has done an in-depth study on the economy of tobacco farming. In which some important reasons have been revealed. The government of Gujarat has declared a tobacco-free Gujarat, but farmers are curtailing agriculture because of the low price, labor. Because of the BJP’s Vijay Rupani government, the prices of tobacco have come down, farmers’ competition has increased. There has been a 33 percent drop in productivity. Due to all this, farmers have reduced tobacco cultivation.
How much does it cost
Gujarat produces two types of tobacco. Bidi smoking tobacco and Calcutta tobacco. On May 1, 2020, the purchase price of 20 kg of tobacco from a farmer was Rs.800-900. Which is not a good price. Farmers have stopped getting good prices. Farmers account for 25.25 percent of the labor cost of bidi-beedi tobacco per hectare. Since the advent of MNREGA, labor prices have gone up and hence the cost of farming has gone up. Thus the wage per hectare is Rs 19,596. The cost of a chemical fertilizer is 12 percent of total expenditure in tobacco farming. Whose prices have gone up. Pesticides cost 0.72 percent of the total expenditure in tobacco farming. Which does not exceed 500-600 per hectare.
The production cost per quintal is Rs 2522. The price comes to 4200. The cost per hectare is a profit of Rs 97,000 as against Rs 1.39 lakh total expenditure in tobacco farming. There is a small increase in income from Calcutta tobacco. But there is more risk factor. Nothing is lost when the crop is destroyed. Thus every 3 years, there is a loss-making crop. So there is not much difference between income and expenditure. That is why farmers are abandoning tobacco cultivation.
Competition increased in 14 districts, planted in Hector
As per the final figures for 2016-17, Ahmedabad 100, Banaskantha 8400, Vadodara 6900, Gandhinagar 3200, Kheda 66000, Anand 78100, Mehsana 13400, Patan 1600, Panchmahal 100, Sabarkantha 6400, Surat 100, Mahisagar 4300, Chotapur 12500, Alavalli 800 Hector a with. Was planted in hectares. Which was the highest ever. In all these districts, supply has increased due to increase in cultivation, so prices are going down.
Planting of 2012-13 – Gujarat in India
Gujarat produced 2.12 lakh tonnes of tobacco in 1.24 lakh hectares in 2012-13, while in India, 6.60 lakh tonnes in 4.60 lakh hectares. There are 1542 kg per hectare in India and 1716 kg in Gujarat. Tobacco was in 2.01 lakh hectares in 2016-17, but 1.20 lakh hectares in 2017-18 and 1.16 lakh hectares in 2018-19. This year it can be around 1 lakh hectares.
Losses have increased as productivity has decreased.
Production fell 33 percent
In 2019-20, 1.62 lakh hectares were planted last year. In which Kharif 48230, Ravi 114180, both seasons produced 350230 tonnes of tobacco. Production per hectare was 2156 kg. Tobacco cultivation is also increasing in North Gujarat. Production BD tobacco yield was 31.36 quintals per hectare. Calcutta used to give 32.11 quintals of tobacco but it has come down to 21.56 quintals in 2019-20. Thus there is a 33 percent decline in production. 5 years ago, after investing Rs 1 per hectare, any Rs. After investing 1 rupee in Bidi tobacco the profit was 97 paise. If the risk of price change, epidemic, natural disaster is calculated after investment of Rs. The decline in production is due to less tobacco application.
Varieties of tobacco
Tobacco Anand-2, Anand 119, Gujarat Tobacco-5, Gujarat Tobacco-9, Gujarat Tobacco Hybrid 1 varieties give good yield for Bidi in irrigated area. Anand 119, Gujarat Tobacco 4, Gujarat Tobacco 7 varieties are selected for non-irrigated area.
Calcutta Gujarat Calcutta: 1, Gujarat Calcutta, 2, Gujarat Calcutta 3 varieties are good for tobacco. Variety of resistant Bidi tobacco Gujarat tobacco 9 or mosaic resistant Gujarat tobacco hybrid 1 has been recommended by Anak Agricultural University. Dharu is ready for planting after 5 to 6 weeks and Bidi tobacco Dharu after 7 to 9 weeks. Calcutta tobacco is transplanted in September, while Bidi tobacco is transplanted from the third week of August to the third week of September.