Dr.Mukesh H.Shukla Email: email@example.com
The Demise And Resurrection Of Botanical Medicine
To put these historical facts into perspective, the World Health Organization reports that 74% of at least 119 phytomedicines are still used in modern medicine in a manner which corresponds directly with their use as traditional medicines by various native cultures. It has also been documented that at least 25% of all prescriptions still come from plants (morphine, codeine, emetine, vincristine, digitalis, and taxol) and that at least 60% of over-the-counter medicines still contain one or more natural products as ingredients.2 In the United States today, we see both remnants and reemergence (new immigrants) of Western Herbalism, Chinese Traditional Medicine, Indian Ayurveda, and many other practices using phytomedicines side-by-side with modern drugs. This practice will probably continue forever given the continuing discovery of new or resistant organisms each year and the necessity to develop new pharmaceuticals to treat them. It is instructive for the new generation of health professionals to review briefly the foundations of modern pharmacology and medicine, because it has always been largely based on knowledge gained from the usefulness of primitive phytomedicines. To briefly cite a few examples of natural products which led to the understanding of several major areas in physiology and pharmacology?
• the effects of reserpine, ephedrine, and the ergot alkaloids led to the lucidation of the adrenergic system;
• the effects of physostigmine, muscarine, and atropine disclosed the complexities of the cholinergic system;
• the properties of tubocurarine led to an understanding of the neuromuscular junction;
• the unique effects of nicotine explained the properties of the ganglion junction;
• the unparalleled qualities of the digitalis glycosides which to this day sustain the cardiovascular system, and
• the action of papaverine and the xanthine derivatives on smooth muscle.
Again, these phytomedicines have long served as “molecular keys” and models for the synthesis of numerous, useful pharmaceutical derivatives.
It is remarkable to reflect that all these phytochemicals are produced via the photosynthetic process in plants. While all herbs can not only biosynthesize their needed sugars, fats, and proteins (primary metabolites), many have the unique ability to produce unusual compounds (secondary metabolites) as well. These complex structures from the plant world make up our classic drug classes such as the alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenylpropanoids, anthocyanins, essential oils, and the like. These have long been the scientific basis of drugs used in pharmacy and medicine.
Reviewing these facts leads us to a better understanding of why it is important to continue to reevaluate herbs from all sectors of the world.
The decades of the 1960s and 1970s saw the demise of crude botanicals from America’s drug stores. Only later did we realize that the demise was more a result of lack of knowledge, improper regulation, and economics than a lack of ease in proving efficacy for herbals. To this day, FDA requires extensive and costly clinical trials for proof of efficacy (as with synthetic drugs), so most pharmaceutical firms cannot afford to invest millions of dollars to support herbal medicines given the lack of proprietary patent protection. With few exceptions, this helps explain why the safety and clinical efficacy of most botanical drugs have remained unproven in the United States, even though extensive historical epidemiological (long safe and effective use) data from other parts of the world (Europe and Asia) is readily available.
It must be kept in mind, however, that while we still do not have complete safety and efficacy data for all herbals, many have been well established through historic use. In addition, we are all aware of the effectiveness of plant-based prescription drugs such as morphine and digoxin, and OTC agents such as senna, psyllium, and castor oil. So we find ourselves in a dilemma; these factors represent both a challenge and an opportunity for health care professionals to understand efficacy issues surrounding the ever increasing phytomedicines market.
Man’s existence on this earth has been made possible only because of the vital role played by the plant kingdom in sustaining his life. Without the variety of living organisms that makes up the World of plants, animal life would not survive and our planet would have been a barren and lifeless World of deserts. The nature has showered a complete store-house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. Since the dawn of civilization, in addition to food crops, man cultivated herbs for his medicinal needs. The knowledge of drugs has accumulated over thousands of years as a result of man’s inquisitive nature. The human beings appear to be afflicted with more diseases than any other animal species.
CORONA VIRUS AND ITS ENTRY
During infection with corona viruses, as with all other RNA viruses, replication of genome and transcription of mRNAs must occur. Replication of the genome involves the synthesis of a full-length negative-strand RNA that is present at a low concentration and serves as template for full-length genomic RNA.
The current model is that discontinuous transcription occurs during the synthesis of subgenomic negative-strand RNAs, with the antileader sequences being added onto the 3′ ends of negative-strand RNAs which then serve as templates for synthesis of mRNAs Coronaviruses attach to specific cellular receptors via the spike protein
The heptad repeat domains and the putative fusion peptide are believed to play important roles in the fusion process
SARS infection exhibits a wide clinical course, characterized mainly by fever, dyspnea, lymphopenia, and lower respiratory tract infection like other RNA viruses; all corona viruses encode, in addition to structural proteins and replicase proteins, small nonessential proteins of unknown function.
In addition to its role as structural protein, N protein plays a role in transcription and also in pathogenesis. Expression of N protein is necessary for efficient recovery of virus from infectious cDNA clones and recently has been shown to enhance the replication of HCoV-229E genome RNA.
The M protein (Membrane Protein) is the most abundant virion membrane protein. Aside from its role in viral assembly, the coronavirus M protein is believed to have functions in host interactions. It may be O glycosylated (groups I and III) or N glycosylated (group II). While glycosylation is not essential for viral assembly or infectivity, the glycosylation state of M protein is likely to play a role in virus-host interaction.
A combination of flu and HIV medications are helping treat severe cases of the new coronavirus
The following composition of three small molecules can have prolific control on Corona Virus.
• Antifertility action
• Increases glutathione content in liver
• Increases rate-limiting step of cholesterol conversion into bile acids
• Inhibits platelet aggregation
• Inhibits lymphocytic activity
• Lowers LDL cholesterol and raises HDL cholesterol
• Stabilizes lysosomal membranes
• Stimulates digestive enzymes
• Topical antibacterial and antifungal
• Tumor-preventing activity
An antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent that acts as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 8 mM) and cyclooxygenase (IC50 = 52 mM). Confers significant protection against neurotoxic and genotoxic agents. Also inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase in activated macrophages (IC50 = 6 mM). Recently shown to inhibit the EGF receptor intrinsic kinase activity in the human epidermoid carcinoma
(2) Chemically known as (1S,2R,4aS,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,10S,12aR,14bS)- 10-hydroxy-1,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-hept amethyl-,2,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a, 10,11,12 13,14b-tetradecahydro-1H-picene-4a-carboxylic acid having chemical structure as given below.
Third Chemical entity can be provided with NDA/Agreement duly signed to safeguard studious research