World Soil Day is celebrated every year on 5 December, the birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Without it the world cannot have food security, but it is not possible to meet the basic needs of life.
Science has created everything necessary for life today, but has not yet succeeded in creating soil and water and there is no possibility of it.
Soil takes care of nutrition, provides pure drinking water, forms the basis of clothing, housing and travel.
The theme of World Soil Day-2021 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is “Prevent Soil Alkalinity, Increase Soil Productivity” with an aim to address the growing challenges in land management.
Movement to remove soil salinity around the world.
Soil salinity is becoming a serious problem globally from the point of view of agriculture. Salinity is a serious problem with sufficient rainfall, pumping water from the soil.
A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations found that 27 billion tons of soil is washed away every year due to alkalinity. This amount of soil is equivalent to 10 million hectares of arable land. It is estimated that 833 million hectares (8.7%) of the world’s land is alkaline.
A private company was to invest Rs 5,600 crore in 8 projects for saltwater desalination. In lieu of which the state government has given Rs. 59,247.84 crore will have to be paid.
The farmers of Gujarat have 50% of the total saline land in the country. In Gujarat, 58.41 lakh hectares of saline and alkaline land has become saline. 13.80% of the land in Gujarat is barren and desolate. In Kutch district 36.92% of such land is due to desert. 89 thousand hectare land in Surendranagar is barren. There bacteria will work.
An additional 2 lakh hectare land will be opened from the 2 thousand square kilometer Kalpsar. There is 10 km of salt in the soil which can be removed after years.
Ransar – The small desert of Kutch is likely to be a freshwater lake. Due to which 8 lakh hectares of fish are expected to benefit.
Gujarat has the highest salinity in India. increasing instead of decreasing. If Kalpsar and Ransar lakes are formed, then saline and saline soil can be reduced to 10 lakh hectares.
The crisis of saline soil can take a formidable form.
The salt hazard areas in the country are spread over Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, West Bengal.
In Kutch, there has been an increase in salinity due to the bifurcation of the Indus river, the splitting of the Sabarmati river and the draw of more water along the coast.
The fertile plains of the Indus-Gangetic plains are most affected by the problem of alkalinity.
Salinity is increasing in canal irrigated areas. Salinity has increased due to irrigation in Kheda.
The formation of water soluble salts in the soil is called alkalinization. It usually contains high levels of sodium, calcium and magnesium and its chlorides and sulfates. There is also the problem of frequent waterlogging in saline soils. In such soil, a white crust forms on the upper surface.