Silk Business in Sickle City Surat, India

Ahmedabad, August 2022

Dilip Patel
The aim of the Silk Mark is to promote general silk in the country and abroad and to build up the brand equity of Indian silk. Patola silk saree is one of the top five silk weaves that every Indian saree lover wants to have in their wardrobe.
The production of silk in India in 2020-21 was 32,763 tonnes.

The artificial silk saree of Surat is famous. There are now two new hybrids that can produce silkworms. India’s export of natural silk fabrics stood at Rs 2496 crore in 2015-16. 2093 crore in 2016-17. Exports are likely to be around Rs 3 thousand crore in 2019-20. It provides employment to 85 to 1 crore people. It was 1685 million tonnes in 2011-12. In 2019-20, a target of 8500 million tonnes was set in India.

Silk Mark Organization of India
Sponsored by the Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles.

A scheme named “Silk Mark” has been prepared by the Silk Mark Organization of India. The aim of the Silk Mark is to promote general silk in the country and abroad and to build up the brand equity of Indian silk. It not only protects the interest of the silk consumers but also the interests of all the stakeholders in the silk value chain including farmers, reelers, twister manufacturers and pure silk traders.

Silk Mark is a quality assurance label, made of pure silk. It can be combined with silk threads, sarees, dress materials, manufactured, furnishing materials and other silk products which are made from 100% natural silk.

With more than 4300 members in the market and over 43 million silk mark labeled products, ‘Silk Mark Organization of India’ is an assurance of quality in silk. 39 exhibitors from 12 states are participating in the expo.

Silk was produced in India in the second century.
Silk cultivation has been going on since 1984 in Valsad, Surat, Navsari in South Gujarat. Now farming has started in Mehsana, Vadodara, Kheda. Navsari Agricultural University has been training farmers in sericulture since 2016.

The impact of 12 per cent GST will be more on the manufacturers of silk fabrics. The 700 silk producers in Surat and 3,000 silk producers across the country, who have got zero input tax credit, are directly burdened by 12 per cent.

Due to the duty structure of 12 per cent GST on yarn and 5 per cent GST on gray cloth, 650 crore input tax credits were available to weavers.

It employs about 23 to 25 lakh people and provides livelihood to about 40 million people in India.

On January 3, 2020, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission inaugurated a silk processing plant at Surendranagar, Gujarat at a cost of Rs 75 lakh. Due to which the production cost of silk thread will be reduced significantly. The sale of raw material from Gujarati Patola Sarees and local level will increase. 90 local women are employed in the unit. Out of which 70 belong to the Muslim community.

At present, one thousand kg silk is being processed monthly in Surendranagar district alone. In Gujarat, only 50-60 percent of silk is being processed against the total demand.

The silk thread used as raw material in Gujarati Patola always had to be imported. Gujarat will gradually be able to produce silk yarn. Silk yarn from Karnataka and West Bengal is processed at the Kosheto Magavi plant. Which is reducing the production cost of Patola sarees as well as increasing the sales. Spread over 3000 square feet, 1000 kg silk is being processed per month in this plant. The annual cost of a plant working in one shift is Rs. A target has been set to produce 2 crore silk threads.

If the plant is operated in 3 shifts, the annual Rs. 5 crore silk processing capacity. The processing of silk raw material from Karnataka, Bangalore in this plant has increased the capacity of Patola manufacturers. Supplies 50 to 60 percent of the total demand for silk. Women on an average only pay Rs. 10 thousand is given.

In the silk processing plant, the women of the area coache, dye, spin, process the silk thread.

There are 40 establishments in the silk section in Gujarat. Which employs more than 2000 women. 52 establishments associated with Khadi Village Industries are giving employment to 5000 people.

Patola’s popularity has increased due to online shopping. Usually a patola producing family used to sell 5-7 patolas annually which has increased to 8-10 patolas today. The trend is gradually increasing.

The famous sari of Gujarat, the patola, is considered very expensive and only worn by the elite or the wealthy. The raw material of silk thread is procured from Karnataka or West Bengal, where silk processing units are located, thus increasing the cost of the fabric manifold.

The silkworms will be imported from Karnataka and West Bengal and processed into domestic silk yarn. The sale of famous Gujarati Patola Sarees will get a big boost.
Traditionally, each region of India has its own unique weave for silk sarees.

Saree weavers in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu stopped production in 2022 as silk prices rose due to inadequate supply. So the zari industry of Surat has been affected.

banarasi saree

Varanasi has also had an impact on the production of this type. The production of Art Silk Yarn, the main raw material coming from Surat, has come down. As a result, weaving centers in Varanasi and Uttar Pradesh, the parliamentary constituency of Narendra Modi, have been affected.

The production of art silk or polyester silk yarn used in weaving Banarasi sarees has come down from 1100 tonnes to 500 tonnes per month.

Half a dozen artisans spinning yarn produce art silk yarn in Surat. 70% of the multicolored spun yarn is sent to Banarasi saree weavers, while the rest is supplied to garment units for making suits and shirts and dress materials.

A total of four lakh pieces are produced per day in Varanasi and Mau districts. No. The consumption of art silk thread is 200-250 tonnes per month.
Until a few years ago, Banarasi saree makers used to import Chinese silk yarn to make silk sarees with heavy and zardoshi work. However, the anti-dumping duty on imported silk yarn opened the way for yarn manufacturers in Surat. Since last few years Surat has been supplying Synthetic Silk Threads in various colours.

Girdhar Gopal Mundra of Madhusudan Group is the largest supplier of silk yarn in Varanasi and Maui. Mass production of yarn requires huge investment.

Surat and Khambhat are the fourth known places in India to manufacture textiles in the country. Gujarat is the first 10 states to cultivate sericulture. The Patolas of Gujarat are famous for their subtlety and beauty. China and India are producing 60 percent of silk in silk production. Silk is cultivated in France, Brazil, Japan, Russia, Korea. Agriculture is not done on a large scale in Gujarat.

Surat’s textile traders have started producing Vigan silk fabrics from August 2021. This fabric is in great demand in western countries.

For the first time in India, the production of Vigan silk fabrics has been started by Surat yarn manufacturers imported from Australia. Vigan Luxe yarn is cruelty free and eco-friendly as well. This thread is biodegradable.

Until now silk was made from the silk of worms, but now Australian scientists have grown trees along the coast and extracted silk from its pulp to make a yarn called lux. The consumption of cotton produced from non-violent artificial trees is increasing in Surat.

Traders of Surat believe that this yarn is cheaper than 50 percent.

Tencel Fabrics can give a new direction to the world renowned Surat Textile Industry. Tencel fabrics are known for their durability. Tencel is a man-made fiber that is completely natural in origin, made from the natural cellulose found in wood pulp. Eucalyptus used in the manufacture of tencel fabric The fiber used for tencel fabric is called lyocell.

Also known as tencel fabrics or lyocell fabrics at Vigan Fabrics as well as bananas, tencel fabrics like silk silk are super soft and have a mesmerizing sheen. Like other fibers, it is breathable and completely biodegradable.

A brilliant and attractive shine is its main quality, which provides versatility. Like other natural fibres, the moisture-wicking Tencel fabric leaves skin feeling extremely soft and supple. Tencel exhibits significantly higher strength than other cellulosic and polyesters.
Absorbs more moisture than cotton. Tonsils are also antibacterial. Due to its softness, it can be easily mixed with other fibers. The blending of lyocell with other fibers produces a wide range of finished fabrics. It is machine wash and dry clean friendly.

If silk production increases, cheap imports from China will stop

Silk is imported from China on a large scale. China produces 80 percent of the global silk production. India’s market share is only 13 per cent. While the silk production of the rest of the countries is seven percent.

India’s annual growth rate is 19 percent. The country produced 28,000 to 30,000 metric tonnes of silk in 2016. The import of silk in the country has been reduced from 6,500 MT to 3,500 MT.

China produces mulberry silk, while India also produces other varieties such as tushar and muga silk.

If quality cotton is produced, many varieties of silk fabric can also be made.

Textile production is starting in the textile industry which is considered to be the backbone of Surat.

Due to the cost of genuine silk fabric people are using art silk fabric instead. It is in great demand which is produced like the fiery original silk.

The original silk was produced in the city of Surat on 1200 machines. But in the current situation, do not want to buy expensive cloth, due to which art silk is coming in vogue.

Genuine silk fabric is made at Rs 200 to 300 per meter. A normal saree is also made in 4000 to 5000 rupees. Due to which the manufacturers of the city have barely ten percent of the production.

Surat produces about 3 to 4 lakh meters of man-made art silk fabrics daily. Art silk is being manufactured at 60 to 70 percent production capacity. Compared to Bangalore, Surat has a better production of both genuine and art silk. Of the 1.5 lakh metres, about 50 per cent is being exported to the Gulf.

60 in Textile Sector in Surat in 2019

Despite being years, Surat is not strong in silk fabric. 5 lakh meters of silk cloth were produced on 1500 loom machines.

Polyester, nylon, blended cotton, viscose and other yarns are widely used in Surat’s wig industry. But at the same time silk thread is also being used. Made in India in 7 Vivig Class Tar including Silk Fabric Surat. Surat has not been able to consolidate its position in silk fabric even after 6 decades. The production of silk fabric is negligible as compared to polyester fabric.

Global demand for silk fabric is stable but domestic demand has increased. The production of silk cloth lags far behind other major weaving groups.

Surat is now world famous in polyester fabric, but has not made much progress in silk. Surat produced 5 lakh meters of silk fabric per month on 1500 looms in 2019.

Global silk exports declined in 5 years till 2019. But there is a great demand for this product in India. The demand for silk fabric was 2.94 billion in 2010, which increased by 2.34 percent to 3.30 billion in 2014. Apart from Surat, silk fabric in the country is produced in Banaras and Bhagalpur which are handloom clusters and Kancheepuram, Salem, Bangalore and Mysore which are weaving clusters.

The production of silk cloth was started in 1954 from Dhanmill of Surat. Gradually other well-known families of Surat joined in. In 2019, the silk fabric production in Surat was 5 lakh meters per month. Since the production of silk fabric requires huge investment, no one comes into it. The yarn consumption by Surat silk manufacturers comes from China and Vietnam and the consumption is 20 tonnes per month.

A target of 38500 tonnes of silk production was set in the country by 2020. The production of silk in 2017 was 30350 tonnes. The central government has allocated 300 million US dollars to make 38500 tonnes in 2020. Sericulture industries are working to provide employment to 76 lakh people in 51 thousand villages of the country. 81.4 lakh weavers are involved in this industry with the help of 32.80 lakh handlooms and 45800 powerlooms.

coral silk

The golden colored Munga silk of Assam is very famous, the most expensive of all types of silk. Produced only in Assam and North Eastern states of the country.

Dumb silk sarees do not need to be dry cleaned, but can be washed at home. After each wash, it becomes more and more pure. A saree does not spoil for about 50 years. Dumb silk is naturally produced in all colors. Fabrics are the strongest. Also, it can be worn in any weather hot or cold.

Dumb silk is produced by a special type of silkworm, Antheraia aamensis. There are insects on two native trees. Whose names are Soma (Machilus bambisina) and Soaloo (Litsai paliantha) who survive by eating leaves.

A caterpillar sheds its old skin four times and takes on a new one. Apart from this, the work of making their Kochlu (shield made of silk thread) is started. Silent silkworm caterpillars secrete a protein-rich substance from their mucus, which dries when exposed to air, forming a thread-like substance. The layer wraps around itself, forming a gradient.

After the caterpillar, silkworms transition to their third life stage, which is called the pupa. The pupa is like a round inert lump, which cannot move. He gets trapped inside the self-made shield. It takes about four to five days for it to develop from a thin layer to a pupa. Whereas it takes about eight days for the cocoon (shell) to be ready.

After pupation, the fourth and final stage is butterfly formation, which takes about 15 days. During this, the butterfly that came out of the pupa breaks the shell and flies away. But this final stage does not occur during the production of silk, as the silk is removed from the cocoon by human intervention. For that the shell is dried in the sun and immersed in boiling water. The silk thread is then separated into a reel.

The cocoon string is surprisingly long, thin and without any joints or knots. The length of a wire can be 400 to 700 meters. Four or eight such threads are obtained, which are wound on a reel, to make silk thread. It is called raw silk. Growers in India grow four to six crops of dumb silk every year.

In sericulture, the cocoon breaks when the process of transformation from pupa to worm is complete. Instead of a long string coming out of this cut cocoon, small pieces of cocto come out. To use this type of silk, it is cleaned like wool and spun, through which the silk is woven. It is called spun silk and it costs less than expected.

About 6 thousand to 8 thousand cocoons are used to make a good saree weighing about 750 grams to one kilogram and it takes about two months. That’s why dumb silk sarees are expensive. A good muted silk saree costs up to Rs 80,000.

The price of dumb silk is Rs 4,000 per kg. Whereas silk produced by insects growing on mulberry trees costs around Rs 1200 per kg.

About 90 percent of silk in India is produced by the mulberry silkworm, which is mainly found in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal.

In India all types of silk like tussar, oak tussar, eri and moo

Ganga is produced.

Tussar silk is produced by an insect called Anthraea mylita. Grows in the leaves of trees named Arjuna and Asan. Most of it is produced in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

Oak Taser, which is prepared by insects growing on oak leaves. Its production was started from the year 1972. The scientific name of this worm is Anthraea Proili J. Which is mostly used in the northeastern states of the country or northern India. Nevertheless, most of the world’s oak tusser is produced in China, where the work is done by a worm called Antharia parnathi.

Ari silk is produced on the castor tree. This silkworm is known as Phyllosamia ricini. Erie silkworms are generally open-mouthed. Therefore silk is made by washing and spinning it. Arai is produced mostly in West Bengal, Orissa, Jharkhand and Bihar.

China is the world leader in silk production, with a total production of 65 thousand metric tons. India’s production comes in second place. India is a leader in the consumption of silk. The total production is 18 thousand metric tonnes but the total demand is 25 thousand metric tonnes. So India has to import silk from other countries.

It is followed by Japan, Brazil, Korea and Vietnam in silk production.

Dumb Silk Saree

Dumb silk strings are very strong. This means that there is very little distance between the stars. Due to this it is not possible to bleach it. So it is not possible to paint it. Due to this, silent silk fabrics are available only in their natural color i.e. golden brown.

For decoration, embroidery is done on its border or in the middle in different colors or different designs. Flowers and leaves, leaves, wild animals, traditional paintings and natural objects are mostly used in embroidery designs.

Also it is not possible to make the garment longer and wider due to the limited width of the handloom used in making dumb silk. Because of this, its border is made differently and paired with the saree.

In Assam, silent silk is mostly used to make women’s clothing such as saris, mekhla (a type of lehenga) and chadar (dupatta-like curtains). Apart from this, it is also used for men’s kurtas.

silk mark

Silkmark is now available to check the purity and quality of silk. For example, ‘Woolmark’ on warm clothes denotes the purity of woolen clothing and ‘Hallmark’ on gold jewelery denotes the purity and quality of gold. Thus, the seal of the Silkmark signifies the true purity and quality of the silk. Silkmark is applied on all types of silk like mulberry, tussar, eri, coral etc. It is also applied on raw silk, readymade garments, readymade garments etc.

Planting of mulberry saplings for mulberry silk production was planned and inaugurated in May 2022 at Sadalav village in Navsari district.

Malabari silk (mulberry tree), silk silk, planted with hi-tech technology in Gujarat, was introduced in the history of Gujarat but due to some reason the farmers here did not get the benefit, on the other hand large quantity of this mulberry silk production it happens. Production is being done in 27 states of India and the farmers of those states are taking full advantage of the government scheme and becoming financially strong.

Cultivation is now on a very large scale in many states, the farmers of Gujarat are very grateful to Rashtriya Kisan Dal and Rashtriya Kisan Sena and Central Silk Board (Ministry of Textiles) for making farmers prosperous and capable. Farmers have expressed their desire to produce 10000 acres of sericulture and agricultural production in Gujarat in the near future. Since the city of Surat is a textile city in Gujarat, there is every possibility that it will benefit.(google transte)