Ahmedabad, 22 June 2022
In 2010-11, potato was planted in 53 thousand hectares in Gujarat and the production was 11.50 lakh tonnes. In Gujarat, 22 thousand kilos of potatoes were produced per hectare. Planting was expected in 1 lakh 31 thousand hectares in 2022-23, due to which the production is expected to be 41 lakh 65 thousand tonnes. The yield was estimated at 32 thousand kg per hectare.
All over India, where most potatoes are grown, potatoes are grown in an area called Nagri. Now extensive cultivation of potatoes has started from Prantij-Himatnagar to Dehgam. It has matured in Patan, Mehsana, Sabarkantha, Gandhinagar and Kheda. Banaskantha is cultivated in 1.10 lakh hectares. It is estimated that potatoes worth Rs 5 to 8 thousand crores are being cooked in Gujarat. Banaskantha accounts for 60 per cent of Gujarat’s total potato production, followed by Aravali with 16 per cent. 78 percent of the total production of Gujarat comes from these two districts.
Thus in 10-11 years the area under cultivation increased by 150 percent. Production increased by 262 percent. In 10 years, 10 thousand kg of potatoes per hectare started ripening. What is the reason for this increase in productivity? Farmers’ hard work, drip irrigation, fertilizer, search for seeds, but spraying of pesticides has resulted in good production.
Now the government doesn’t have much discretion about when and how to use pesticides. Even if it is harmful. There are many examples in the country of increasing production by sprinkling alcohol in the field. Most of the farmers are cultivating potatoes under contract with big companies. However, there is a sizeable section that sells potatoes in the open market. Heavy pesticides are being found in those potatoes.
Gujarat’s 96 lakh hectare farms consume 6200 tonnes of insecticides, 4 thousand tonnes of fungicides, 10 thousand tonnes of pesticides including seed weeders and weed killers.
Potato crop requires pesticides, which are expensive. Cost of production including labour, fertilizer Rs. 50,000-60,000 per bigha and Rs.1 lakh per acre. The average yield is about 2,000 kg. The product will have to be sold at Rs 5 per kg. Minimum Rs. There is a profit on selling 10 per kg.
The farmers of Prantij say that one lakh rupees per acre has to be spent on pesticides, labour, fertilizers and water in potato.
The country uses 600 grams of crop protection chemicals per hectare, while the rate in the world is 3 kg per hectare.
PepsiCo has launched Crop Intelligence model in India. At the same time, a mobile application will be made for this, which will provide various types of information on the dashboard.
Potatoes and carrots contain pesticides in excess of the recommended amounts. This study was published in the Journal of Food Chemistry. The quality of potatoes was not up to international standards. Farmers make all efforts to increase the production of potato, but do not pay attention to improving its quality.
He uses chemical elements indiscriminately in the crops in the greed of more production. Potatoes have the effect of some chemical drugs and pesticides. For this reason, potatoes are disliked in foreign countries. For export, there should be 90 percent dry matter, less pesticide, residual amount of fertilizer.
Private scientists on large agricultural farms modified potato genes to create high-yielding varieties, but they could not control the quality of the potatoes produced. The only Kufri variety of Central Potato Research Institute Shimla is recognized by the government. While no unit has been formed at the national or state level to prevent the circulation of unproven species.
Drip irrigation increases potato yield by 25 to 30 percent. 40 percent water is saved.
Pesticide companies sell poison
The price of pesticides in the market is Rs. 500 to Rs. While the cost of country liquor is Rs 7000 per litre. 80 and English liquor is available for Rs.200 a litre. Pesticide micronutrients (liquid) are available at Rs 2000 per litre. The cost of Imasin Benzoate is Rs.7000. The cost of ‘Mono’, a drug used for the growth of weak crops, is around Rs. 360 Expenses.
By 2024, the global market for poison will be Rs. Will reach to. 10.8 lakh crore will reach. Between 1990 and 2017, while pesticide use increased by 484 percent in South America, it increased by 97 percent in Asia.
Agrochemical giants include BASF, Bayer, Corteva, FMC and Syngenta. These companies are selling their products in countries where the rules and regulations are not as strict. Indian farmers are spending 37 percent more on pesticides per hectare in 2018 than in 2002, before the introduction of GM cotton. These companies are selling their highly harmful pesticides (HHP) mostly in developing countries. HHP accounts for about 59 per cent of the total insecticides sold by these companies in India.
Pesticides whose use is not permitted are not only being manufactured in developed countries like Europe, but are also being exported to other countries. Many European companies are also involved in this business. In such a situation, there is a need to understand the politics behind these double standards.
Agriculture in many other countries of the world, including India, is largely dependent on these pesticides, which contain large amounts of pesticides, excessive use and misuse of which cause great harm to human, animal, biodiversity and environmental health.
nutritious ah without vegetables and fruits The gate is considered incomplete. But many people are not aware of the traces of pesticides on their surfaces.
Worm potatoes arrive on our dining table
The Environmental Working Group (EWG) released its annual list of the 12 ‘dirtiest’ vegetables and fruits in America. It also had potatoes in it. These include strawberries, spinach, peaches, apples, grapes, pears, cherries, grapes, celery leaves, tomatoes, red peppers and potatoes.
About 70 different pesticides were found in about 40 percent. Of over 84,000 food samples from the European Food Safety Authority, 43.9% contained pesticide residues. However, their quantity was not at a dangerous level.
The use of pesticides is not uniform around the world. Some pesticides are banned in some countries and not in others. Exposure to multiple pesticides, even in small amounts, can cause a ‘cocktail effect’ that increases risk. Inhaling various toxic substances like pesticides can affect fertility, sperm quality and brain development in children and can also cause hormonal problems.
Tuber Enlargement Zebrelic Acid
Farmers use all kinds of chemicals to increase the size of potato tubers. It also contains zebrelic acid for up to 10 years. This chemical is dissolved in alcohol and sprinkled on the potato crop. This increases the size of potato tubers, but it is very harmful for health.
The wine is sprinkled in the fields for a good harvest. Desi and English are adding liquor. Since the cost of insecticides is high, alcohol has been introduced to protect the crops. Due to which the crop also increases and the yield also increases. Farmers were seen spraying English country liquor in the fields.
In these areas, if the smell of alcohol comes from the swaying crop, then it seems that the crop has become intoxicated. Generally country liquor is sprinkled on fruits and vegetables, but now country and English liquor is being sprinkled on crops like potato, gram.
Alcohol is more useful than insecticides for crops and vegetables.
Vegetable plants start turning yellow on the third day after spraying alcohol. Their growth also increases. Germs and other bacteria die. The problem of drying of flowers before the formation of fruits also goes away. New flowers and fruits start coming.
Farmers argue that 25-30 ml of liquor is sufficient for half a bigha of land. Most of the farmers spray in 10 liter and 16 liter sprayer pumps by mixing desi and English liquor up to 100 ml. Many farmers use about 150-200 ml of alcohol per bushel. The consumption of alcohol has increased in agriculture in Shekhawati. Consumption of alcohol has increased after spraying in the fields.
However, in Saurashtra, a mixture of milk and jaggery is sprinkled on crops for good yields.
Pesticides have been used since Vedic times to increase both the quality and quantity of produce in the civilizations of India and Mesopotamia.
Herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, poisons are used on potato plants or in the soil to kill the caterpillars.
Organophosphates: These damage the central nervous system and have long-term effects.
Carbamates: Similar to organophosphates but with less lethal and short-lived effects
Pyrethroids: also affects the central nervous system.
Organochlorines: Example: DDT. They also have harmful effects on the environment.
Neonicotinoids: These are sprayed on the leaves of small trees and large trees
Glyphosate: Used regularly on farms with genetically modified crops (GM crops).
If it is not washed, the residues of pesticides sprayed on it go into the body.
Pesticides get dissolved in the soil, are absorbed by the plants, enter the fruit/vegetable/foodgrain and from there enter the human body. Pesticides seep into groundwater, from where they enter drinking water.
Potatoes, okra, cabbage, spinach, kale, celery, strawberries, cherries, tomatoes, peaches, pears, apples, nectarines and grapes are the agricultural produce with the highest pesticide content.
Agricultural products with the lowest pesticide content are: corn, eggplant, onions, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, frozen peas, mushrooms, asparagus, honeydew, cantaloupe, kiwi, pineapple, papaya and avocado.
Fruits and vegetables are eaten directly without washing or cooking.
Pesticide handlers, agricultural workers, and people who live too close to farms where pesticides are used are at risk.
Vegetables eaten raw should be kept peeled.
Potato is the most important crop after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tonnes per year.
Potato farming requires the use of pesticides, as they kill insects, weeds, fungi and viruses. Hence production increases.
The most widely used insecticides in potato cultivation in the European Union are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).
Insecticides are not completely effective. Agricultural chemicals can accumulate in crops. Potatoes have a bad effect on the health of the eaters.
Worldwide pesticide consumption is approximately two million tons per year, of which 24% is used in the United States alone, 45% in Europe, and 31% in the rest of the world.
The majority of insecticides used in India were (60%), followed by fungicides (19%), herbicides. biopesticides (3%), and others (3%), of which 13% used Used in vegetables.
Fruits and vegetables contain more pesticide residues than any other food item. The highest use of pesticides on fruits and vegetables is in Punjab (88.3%) and Sindh (8.2%).
Pesticide residues on potatoes can also do some damage in the form of S. The concentration of pesticide residues in potatoes depends on the number of applications in the agricultural sector, which may lead to an increase in the use of pesticides. The present study documents the results of previously reported data and evaluates the residue levels of various pesticides in potatoes collected from different countries. López-Pérez et al. (2006)
Studies on potatoes using insecticides, fungicides, nematicides and herbicides showed that only one fungicide was present in the tubers, and the concentration was below the MRL. The concentration of prothiophos was found to be higher than the MRL value of this insecticide for potato.
studied Privicur-N 72.2% and Proplant 72.2% in a potato field and observed that if the crop was harvested 5 days after the last insecticide application, the residual concentration was higher than the MRL value.
Residues of commonly used insecticides such as chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, simoxani, glyphosate, mancozeb, methamidophos and paraquat were found.
Only chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in all the samples. Pesticides were not found in any of the samples above the permissible limit. Rupees
Most of the samples did not contain any residues of the selected pesticides. The analyzed potato samples did not pose any serious risk to the health of consumers.
Farmers lack awareness about application rates, spraying methods and proper harvesting intervals. There is a lack of proper guidance on the use of pesticides. May increase pesticide residue levels on potatoes. Long-term accumulation poses several health risks.
Several studies have reported pesticide residues exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables with concentrations of carbofuran 0.01–0.39 mg/kg and chlorpyrifos 0.05–0.96 mg/kg (Latif et al., 2011).
The World Health Organization announced in 2022 that some pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and lindane, can persist in soil and water for years. These chemicals have been banned since 2001. Many chemicals are banned for agricultural use in developed countries, but they are used.
Hooghly is a potato producing district of West Bengal.
Another issue of concern is the excessive use of fertilizers, which has reduced fertility over the years.
Due to ignorance, there is a tendency to use pesticides in excess of the prescribed quantity.
WHO reviews the evidence. Pesticides are used to protect crops from insects, weeds, fungi, and other pests.
Pesticides are potentially toxic to humans and can have both acute and long-term effects on health depending on the dose and methods by which a person is exposed. There are more than 1000 pesticides used around the world. Each insecticide has different properties and toxic effects.
Pesticides are more toxic to humans than herbicides.
None of the food pesticides authorized in international trade are genotoxic, which can cause mutations or cancer. When people are exposed to large amounts of pesticides, the result can be acute toxicity or long-term health effects that may include cancer and adverse effects on reproduction.
Peeling or washing vegetables can limit exposure to pesticide residues, which also reduces other foodborne hazards, such as harmful bacteria.
The United Nations Population Division estimates that there will be 9.7 billion people on Earth by the year 2050 – a nearly 30% increase from 2017. Almost all of this population growth will occur in developing countries. Food production has to be increased by 80%. The expansion of agricultural land is expected to increase food production by only 20%.
India ranks second in potato production in the world after China. Diseases and pests cause great damage to potatoes in the field and in storage. In case of severe infection, potato crop suffers 40-70 percent loss due to diseases and pests. During the cultivation of potato, it is attacked by many diseases and pests. If more yield of potato is desired then it is necessary to destroy these diseases and pests.
Tuber Moth Pests
Potato tuber moth larvae hatch from the eggs and tunnel through potato leaves and stems. They burst the eyes of the potatoes kept in the country’s warehouses and make holes in them. This pest damages potato crop up to 60-70 percent in storage and in the field. Potato is the main host plant.
Apply Fenvalerate 2% or Malathion 5% or Quinolphos 1.5% on seed potatoes at the rate of 125 grams per quintal of potato. This chemical should not be used on edible potatoes. Spraying 300 grams of Bacillus thuringiensis or Granulosis virus powder per quintal for feeding potatoes.
Mahun or champa
Many insects are sap-suckers. This virus spreads. Disease-free seed is a major obstacle in potato production. Aphids act as major vectors of leaf curler (PLRY) and Y virus (PVY). 10 kg Phorate at the rate of 10 grams per hectare Spray. Spray Imidacloprid 17.8 SL mixed with 3 ml/10 liters of water.
White flies of Bemisia species harm the potato crop. The leaves suck the sap, which weakens the plant. Acts as a vector for gemini virus and apical leaf curl virus in potato. Due to this virus the leaves curl and the plant turns yellow.
Imidacloprid 1 at 10 days interval 7.8 sl. Spray by dissolving in 2 ml/10 liters of water.
Cutworm is a major pest of potato. This pest damages up to 35-40 percent of the potato crop in India. Eats twigs or tubers.
Foliar application of insecticide Chlorpyriphos 20 EC at the rate of 2.5 liters per hectare.
Potato crop White-worm-Bollworm causes loss of 10 to 80 percent of potato crop. Plants have roots. The larvae feed by making holes in potato tubers. An insecticide like Chlorpyriphos 20 EC is used by dissolving it in 2.5 ml/litre of water. Phorate 10g or Carbofuran 3g insecticides are used.
This disease is caused by a fungus. Scattered spots on the leaves are completely destroyed. Potato is not fit to eat. Potato tubers are dipped in 0.1% solution of agelal for 2 minutes. Spray Phytolan, 0.3% Blitex-50 thrice at an interval of 12 to 15 days.
The disease appears with pale green spots caused by a fungus. Spray Bordeaux mixture 4:4:50, 0.3 percent copper oxychloride.
brown rot and bacterial wilt
Since it is a bacterial disease, the plant dries up. Brown spots can be seen on potatoes. Bleaching powder is applied at the rate of 4-5 kg per acre along with manure.
Common scab or scab disease
The disease appears with a mold on the tubers of the plant. The tuber is not edible due to light brown blisters. The seeds are treated with 0.25% organomercurial solution such as Imshan or Igal solution for 5 minutes.
Farmers should use neem oil to prevent pest attack in potatoes. Use Waveria vesiana for termite control. For the control of fungal diseases, farmers should apply Trichoderma mixed with cow dung at the rate of 2.5 kg per hectare in the field before sowing potatoes. Apart from this, use Trichoderma 4 to 6 grams per kg of seed for seed treatment.
The increasing use of pesticides to increase profits is giving rise to new threats everyday. According to an estimate, more than 11 thousand people are dying every year due to this poison used in the fields. About 60 percent of these deaths occur in India. Not only this, this pesticide is also the cause of illness of 385 million people worldwide. This information has been revealed in ‘Pesticide Atlas 2022’.
Even after 60 years, the use of pesticides continues unabated, the use is negligible and has increased manifold.
23 children died due to pesticides in Bihar. Children died within minutes of eating rice and potato curry. Forensic examination of the food revealed that the oil in which the food was cooked contained the pesticide monocrotophos, which led to the death of these children.
The population of birds and butterflies living in the fields has declined by about 30 percent. One in 10 bees in Europe are at risk of extinction due to pesticides.
These chemicals cause diseases like cancer in humans, harm their fertility. Not only this, a recent study revealed that 64 percent of the world’s arable land is at risk of pesticide pollution.
Worldwide use of pesticides has almost doubled since 1990.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS) is an organic insecticide used on crops, animals and in house paint on buildings. Used to kill many pests including bed bugs. It attacks the nervous system of insects by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Many scientists of the world have experimented on it to prove that it is a threat to the environment, it remains in the soil for years and the roots of agricultural crops do not like this pesticide. Therefore plants require more chemical fertilizers.
For 55 years in the world and 45 years in Gujarat, this pesticide has wreaked havoc on humans and living nature. Chlorpyrifos has been used as an insecticide since 1965 in both agricultural and non-agricultural fields. Chlorpyrifos was patented by the Dow Chemical Company in 1966. Non-agricultural uses include golf courses, turf, greenhouses, wood treatment. Used to repel insects such as ants in mosquito repellent and child resistant packaging. Available in powder and liquid form in the market.
List of Banned Pesticides
Serial Number – Insecticide – Crop Name
1 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid – tea
3 Vertnal – Apple,
4 Carabril – Arhar
5 Carbofuran Cotton, Capsicum
6 chloroalionyl apples, grapes, peppers
7 Chlorpyrifos Moong, Mustard, Sugarcane
8 Copper oxychloride cumin, tea, paddy
9 Cypermanthrin Sugarcane
10 grams Deltamethrin (Decamethrin)
11 Dichlorvos (DDVP) Sugarcane
12 Difenaconazole Peanut
13 Diflubinazolone Peanut
14 Dimethot Arhar, Cotton, Groundnut
15 Dinocaps Apple, Grapes, Beans, Okra, Peach, Plum, Pea, Poppy, Chili, Cumin, Fenugreek
16 endosulfan flame r, corn
17 Last Peppers, Peas
18 Flusilazole Grapes, Apple
19 Malathion Cotton, Groundnut, Mustard
20 Mancojeb Beet (Potato), Ginger
21 Methyl Parathion Soybean, Groundnut
22 Monocrotophos gram, castor, mustard
23-oxydemetone,-methyl lemon, orange etc. (citrus lemon)
24 Permethrin okra, cabbage, lemon, orange etc.
25 Fenyot Moong, Urad, Cotton, Cardamom
26 Fallon Paddy, Cotton, Groundnut, Cardamom, Okra, Chilli
27 Phosphamidan Mustard
28 Profinophos T
29 Propiconazole Banana, Coffee
30 Kwanilaphos Sugarcane, Brinjal, Onion, Mango, Coffee, Cauliflower
31 thiophenate-methyl wheat, cucumber group, pigeon pea
32 Tridimifan Coffee, Mango, Chili, Soybean
33 Trizophos Brinjal
34 Triad RF Green peas, guar pods, group of cucumbers, plums, tea, lemons, oranges etc.
35 Trifluralin Cotton, Soybean
36 Eriofujin Paddy, Grapes, Cumin, Apple, Potato
37 Copper Sulphate Potato, Grape, Tomato, Chili
38 Streptomycin + Tetracycline Pepper, Cotton
39 Copper Hydroxide Tea, Chili, Groundnut
40 Flufinaxuron Cabbage
41 oxycarbaxin coffee
42 Thiobincarb (Benthiocarba) Rice
Adulteration of pesticides
In Gujarat, 10 percent of the samples failed.
Rajkot district has the highest number of pesticide sample failures in Gujarat. Samples of 23 medicines have failed in this district. Gir Somnath district is second with 18 samples. 16 samples have failed equally in Aravalli and Panchmahal. 15 samples have failed in Gandhinagar, 13 in Sabarkantha, 12 in Navsari, 11 in Kutch and Mehsana.
Apart from this, 10-10 samples have failed in Ahmedabad and Narmada and 9-9 in Vadodara and Bhavnagar and eight-eight in Porbandar and Botad. In total 33 districts of Gujarat, samples of pesticides have failed in increasing quantity. A total of 259 medicines in the state are not suitable for spraying in the fields, yet crores of rupees have been grabbed from the farmers. (translated from Gujarati by google)