Climate change may increase many more diseases in the future
Dilip Patel, 6 March 2022
Gujarat has produced more than 2.5 million tonnes of gram this year as compared to earlier. But a new disease is emerging. Which has the potential to end the cultivation of gram. Among the pulses, chickpea is most commonly consumed in making Gathiya or Farsana in Gujarat. If land-borne disease has the power to disrupt Gujarat’s agriculture. Due to which the pride of the farmers of Gujarat, which is currently growing the most gram per hectare in the country, can be shattered.
About the disease Mamta Sharma has started a campaign to find out the reasons for the growth of this disease in the gram crop.
Due to climate change, the temperature is increasing and the soil moisture is decreasing. Along with this, many new diseases have also started coming. which had not been seen before. A new disease has been found, root rot, which has been increasing over the years due to change in temperature.
Climate change is having an impact on agriculture. A study conducted by scientists has found that cases of many types of soil-borne diseases may increase in the gram crop in the future.
The cases of stunt virus in Gujarat have been increasing since 5 years. The virus is spread through molo ink. Plants do not grow. If the cold is short, then the disease increases. A new disease of air origin can be a nuisance.
soil borne diseases
Scientists have discovered that climate change may increase the chances of soil-borne diseases such as gram root rot in the future. There has been an increase in the incidence of rot, root rot disease in the gram crop in the last few years. The disease develops rapidly due to climate change, drought with increasing temperature and lack of soil moisture.
The disease is caused by a pathogen called Macrophomina phaseolina, which is a soil-borne host. Macrophomina survives under environmental conditions. It can withstand extreme conditions of temperature, soil pH and humidity.
This disease occurs most often when the temperature is above 30 degrees and the humidity is less than 60 percent. The scientists examined the DNA levels to determine which genes inside the plant caused the disease. The crop produces flowers and fruits, at that time if the temperature rises and the soil moisture decreases, then this disease causes great damage to the gram. Due to which the plants dry up in 10 days.
This disease damages the roots and stems of gram. Dry root rot weakens chickpea plants, leaves turn green, stunts growth and dries up stalks. If the roots are severely damaged, the leaves of the plant suddenly wither and wither.
States of America
This disease is happening in most places in states like Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra. Scientists have found that the disease infects 5 to 35 percent of the total crops in these states. This disease has emerged since 2016-17 and is spreading now.
The gram crop is ready in 90 to 100 days. The yield per hectare in the country ranges from 1000 kg to 1200 kg. The Agriculture Department estimates that Gujarat will produce 2.5 million tonnes of gram this year. Gujarat produces 1575 kg per hectare. The farmers of Gujarat are the leaders in the country in achieving maximum production per hectare.
Ahmedabad district accounts for 20% of the total cultivation in Gujarat. The productivity of Junagadh is excellent.
The cultivation of gram in Gujarat has increased from 4.66 lakh hectares to 11 lakh hectares in 3 years. Last year, 8.19 lakh hectares were sown. There has been an increase of 235 percent in plantation. The area of gram is equal to the area of wheat.
There are 8.65 lakhs in Saurashtra. Chole has been planted in all the districts of Saurashtra and in Ahmedabad and Patan.
The area of Rajkot district is the highest in the entire state at 1.50 lakh hectares. About 45% of all winter crops in Saurashtra are chickpeas.
Whereas in India, gram is cultivated in about 9.54 million hectares, which is 61.23%. The total area of the world.
Worldwide, chickpea is grown on an area of about 14.56 million hectares, with an annual production of 14.78 million tonnes.
The new disease is highest in Saurashtra, Ahmedabad, Patan in Gujarat.
Scientists are doing research to save the crop. If weeds do not accumulate in the field and irrigation is done, then some damage can be avoided. The team of scientists is now working to protect the gram crop from DRR infection. In collaboration with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the ICRISAT team is continuously monitoring, testing improved varieties, techniques, development and forecasting models to combat such deadly plant related diseases.
Chickpea succulence is caused by seed borne and soil borne fungi. The plants dry up and fall to the ground. The dark brown or black color of its aquifer is visible when the stem of the plant is cut vertically. To control this disease, take gram crop after crop rotation, jowar. Apply 1000 kg of castor mile per hectare. Transplantation of Chana-2 and Gujarat Chana-3 varieties.
Apply Carbendazim 1 gm and Thiram at 2-3 gm/kg of seed.